- "The implant works. Hostile Seventeen can't hurt any living creature, in any way, without intense neurological pain."
- ―Riley Finn[src]
Behavior-Modification Circuitry, largely known simply as "the chip", was a behavior modification device used by The Initiative. It was a chip implanted directly into the brain of certain Hostile Subterrestrials, which prevented them from willfully harming or attempting to harm any non-demon lifeform by causing a painful shock directly into the brain..
The chip had sensors capable of differencing humans from demons, though these were susceptible to the effects of magic, demonstrated when Spike became capable of harming the newly-resurrected Buffy Summers as her resurrection caused a slight molecular shift that was just enough to 'confuse' the chip to allow Spike to hurt her. The chip only activated when the subject actually intended to harm someone, such as allowing Spike to demonstrate a particular combat move to Buffy because he knew he wouldn't actually be able to make contact, but preventing him from even pointing a gun at Xander when he thought the gun was real. The need for intention meant that, when Spike was brainwashed by the First Evil to become its sleeper agent and kill again, the chip did not hinder him as he was not actively intending to kill others himself.
Spike was the only known victim of the chip: when Adam unleashed hordes of demons within the Initiative complex, the demons were all capable of attacking humans without any problems. To add further confusion, the chip did not hinder Spike in any way until he tried to bite Willow Rosenberg, as he was able to successfully fight off the Initiative's personnel during his escape from the complex. The chip usually activated before Spike could hurt anyone, such as being triggered when he merely pointed a handgun, but the chip would at some points activate after Spike harmed someone. Spike used this to test whether Tara Maclay was truly a demon by giving her a light punch to the nose which caused the chip to activate, thus proving her humanity.
After Spike had lived with the chip in his head for three years, it eventually degraded, randomly activating and threatening to kill Spike. Buffy contacted Riley for help, and in response, he sent a group of soldiers to Sunnydale to do so, but told them that whether or not they were to remove or repair the chip was up to Buffy; Buffy chose to have the chip removed, convinced that Spike's soul would keep him from harming people.
As the creation of behaviorists, the chip was intended to modify observable behavior and not desires or instincts, which are outside the concerns of Behaviorism as they can't actually be perceived or measured in any way.
- "The Yoko Factor" (First identified)